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FEATURE High- speed technology test & measurement
of identical symbols carry lower
frequencies, and rapidly alternating
strings carry higher frequencies.
Pre-/ de- emphasis at the transmitter
and equalization at the receiver are
techniques for solving ISI problems.
Simulations can predict the effects
of a channel on a waveform at the
earliest design stages. Of course,
simulation accuracy depends on
channel characterization accuracy.
Simulations have trouble with real
world edge effects caused by connectors,
vias, dielectric anisotropies,
etc., and have to be verified by
from a simulation
starting with an
it at any point in
The benefit of a
measurement – provided
the engineer starts
with an instrument- quality
waveform and takes care
with any cables and connections
– is that the engineer sees
reality. Internally generated ISI is a
big problem for engineers trying to
make such accurate measurements.
Any intrinsic ISI in the test
waveform corrupts measurements of
channel ISI. It’s possible to unfold the
ISI of the initial waveform from the ISI
of the outgoing waveform. But extensive,
detailed analysis is required.
DCD is the variation in the widths
of positive and negative pulses,
i. e., differences in the widths of
1s and 0s. It can be identified by
FIGURE 1. BERTs are essential tools for
characterizing the performance of communications
components, subsystems, and systems.
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